Self Defaults

Social Default Bias
We copy others’ choices when we can’t make informed decisions.
New research has found that when we’re deciding between products but aren’t well-informed, observing others’ choices significantly influences our own decision. This leads to the creation of a powerful social default choice.

Eun Huh, Vosgerau & Morewedge (2014) Social Defaults: Observed Choices Become Choice Defaults. Journal of Consumer Research.
This finding is absolutely fascinating, digging into those deep, curious motivations that influence us into the copying of others. Interestingly, this latest work highlights the opposite from most common findings in social psychology, which themselves suggest that we’re more likely to imitate others’ behavior in public (Deutsch and Gerard 1955).

Instead, the research shows that social defaults are more likely to occur when others aren’t around. The reason? Something called ‘Impression management’ or, more simply put, the avoiding of embarrassment. After all, it’s not unheard of for people to feel uneasy at copying others’ choices and fear being labeled as “followers”, and subsequently all those negative labels that come with it (weak, dependent etc).

Your esteemed writer nods his head profusely when writing this particular paragraph, recalling the countless times he’s waited for other supermarket customers to leave the wine section with their carefully judged choice before selecting exactly the same bottle that they did. Oh the lengths to which we go to save face, even amongst strangers…

In the research, participants were asked to observe a tea-chooser choose amongst two brands of Korean tea, with packaging all in Korean, meaning they’d be pretty uninformed about which brand to go for. They were then asked to select one of these teas themselves. They were found to be more than three times more likely to choose the same (social default) teabag as that selected by the chooser. Crucially, this was only when the chooser was not present in the room when the choice was being made.

However, adding English text to the packaging made participants less likely to mimic the co-worker’s behaviour. This suggests that social defaults are less likely to occur when the person has information about a given situation, and if they already have a strong existing preference for a given product or brand. When we feel strongly about something, we’re less likely to be swayed by external influences.

We are more likely to adopt social defaults when it’s deemed appropriate (i.e. if someone exhibits outrageous behaviour, we’ll probably not adopt it), when the stakes are low (if we’re asked to explain our decision, we’re more likely to make an independent choice), when we’re uncertain, and when we’re tired or distracted.

Key takeaways for Decision-Makers
Works best in private These findings suggest that the social default effect is most likely to occur in private. Marketing messages based on social norms therefore may work best when they reach a customer in a private context, for example via email marketing or using flyers sent to their homes.
‍Beware of brand preference If you’re using this technique, pick a target audience whom you think don’t have a strong preference for your brand or your competitors, and are indifferent about which brand of the given product they use, as social defaults provide a powerful way to divert them towards your brand.
‍Limited product knowledge enhances the effect According to the research, it would appear that the effect works best in industries where the choice is high, but our knowledge is relatively low. Wine is a great example.
‍Highlighting previous choices online There are also online opportunities to highlight which product from a given range is being bought most on a given day, emulating a similar effect in store. Since the transaction is being handled in private (on a computer or mobile), the effect on the consumer’s decision should be strong and consistent.
‍Works well for new markets & product ranges The effect may have the strongest effect for new product lines / industries (e-cigarettes, for example), where there is limited knowledge or launching an existing product in a new country, where local knowledge of an existing product or range is low.
Further Reading
Social Influence: Compliance and Conformity PDF (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004)

A Focus Theory of Normative Conduct: Recycling the Concept of Norms to Reduce Littering in Public Places PDF (Cialdini, Reno and Kallgren, 1990)

A Study of Normative and Informational Social Influence upon Individual Judgment DOC (Deutsch, Morton and Gerard, 1955)

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I was born in a family of four , extended to six if ma step sister and brother were counted, and it was a tussle between the two families. Life you see did’t just happen , it was made to happen by those who surrounded me. I recall how growing up my mom would tell us she’s going to work and I’de be so concerned how many hours she would stay there, it would back me.

Taking some porridge some afternoon took me to the thought that life is just a way that it happens..but growing something was forming, a bitter hustle. ” Tutu tell your dad to get you money for food.” And it resounded. Then I would be adamant not questioning. I was confused. Didn’t we have enough. We could have both meals. And yeah My adamant nature hadn’t the underlying issues.

Then came my kleptomaniac brother and that habit that got him mostly almost behind bars. Following was my eldest brother and “coke” had him all the way to South Africa and back into rehab. Until the point my dad got a resignation from the Kenindia Post and that was when the drama subverted into my best Aunt Myra.

By then we was doing great and hitting high school did really transform me into a leader and got me diving deep into my talent realization and yea,course work sacked! IT DID! Poetry and this Sharon Kendi crush had me a new found art and science more than the bygone ill fated boring education system notes and grades pursuit. I felt I needed a Father presence and made ma call. By then he was back.

Little did I know their expectations were a straight A like back in juniour school for there’s helb to that fact. But no , I didn’t and the priesthood bit.
I tried it out with the Salesian of Don Bosco but was out before long. Now ..

All I get is this closed out of the house .. And my best aunt intervenes till my point of encounter with my vision coming into reality mentor and business coach , Anthony. Then just then , I get to shift out twice and 5 months in each occasion I get back. Not until all some bitterness comes with all some toxicity that I never imagined. Like” I went to school to just eat” and ‘I am never gonna make it.” Well life has its fangs. But when did my mother start all this when she self proclaims she does counseling , threatening to get me behind bars for drug peddling and {bhang}marijuana handling? Do i even do some stuff? Do I really need college and did i even go through my aviation class till the end. Well Trevour knows and Allan also, Steve , did he get through to his papers and my twin sister , who sleeps out without a caution , does she have the all full support? Is the pocket money any thing of my vocabulary? Not, I earn my doe and I go out to get whose got my money for my new found passionate grind where I freelance , “Digital marketing.” Does my mother know , she who talks like my dad left a knife right through her throat and heart , and his long gone six feet under ? In the United what…? Does Trump even know what shit hole He came from that Russsel Brunson and Richard Brunson plus Dwayne Carter haven’t been made of?

Well I guess now I have told the world why I seem a rebel to my mother , “Biological” may be , and well my dad who wasn’t so prepared , men better be prepared of the dynasty ya building out here. Some bitterness gone fall on ya offspring and women hold strings of memories and guess she shall come to forgive me since my first E-book pointed out ,why she , and so many others are -“A MILLENIAL NOT A MILLIONAIRE.”

yours inspiringly rebbelious son,”MOM” & “DAD”
BRAD BLACK GENIUS – tell Trump Putin has his shithole and I’ll be next.

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Brand associations refers to a set of information nodes held in memory that form a network of associations and are linked to a key variable. For example, variables such as brand image, brand personality, brand attitude, brand preference are nodes within a network that describes the sources of brand-self congruity. In another example, the variables brand recognition and brand recall form a linked network that describes the consumer’s brand awareness or brand knowledge.

Brand attitude refers to the “buyer’s overall evaluation of a brand with respect to its perceived ability to meet a currently relevant motivation.”

Brand awareness refers to the extent to which consumers can identify a brand under various conditions. Marketers typically identify two distinct types of brand awareness; namely brand recognition and brand recall.

Brand equity Within the literature, it is possible to identify two distinct definitions of brand equity. Firstly an accounting definition suggests that brand equity is a measure of the financial value of a brand and attempts to measure the net additional inflows as a result of the brand or the value of the intangible asset of the brand. A different definition comes from marketing where brand equity is treated as a measure of the strength of consumers’ attachment to a brand; a description of the associations and beliefs the consumer has about the brand.

Brand image refers to an image an organiZation OR PERSON wants to project.

Brand personality refers to “the set of human personality traits that are both applicable to and relevant for brands.” WHAT PEOPLE SAY CONSCIOUSLY ABOUT YOU AND YOU TALK ABOUT YOURSELF UNCONSCIOUSLY. WHAT PEOPLE SAY WHEN YOU LEAVE THE ROOM.

Self-brand congruity draws on the notion that consumers prefer brands with personalities that are congruent with their own; consumers tend to form strong attachments with brands where the brand personality matches their own.

Brand preference refers to “consumers’ predisposition towards certain brands that summariZe their cognitive information processing towards brand stimuli.”
Brand orientation

Brand orientation refers to “the degree to which the organization values brands and its practices are oriented towards building brand capabilities”.

It is a deliberate approach to working with brands, both internally and externally. The most important driving force behind this increased interest in strong brands is the accelerating pace of globalization. This has resulted in an ever-tougher competitive situation on many markets.

A product’s superiority is in itself no longer sufficient to guarantee its success. The fast pace of technological development and the increased speed with which imitations turn up on the market have dramatically shortened product life-cycles.

The consequence is that product-related competitive advantages soon risk being transformed into competitive prerequisites. For this reason, increasing numbers of companies are looking for other, more enduring, competitive tools – such as brands.


Brand management aims to create an emotional connection between products, companies and their customers and constituents. Brand managers may try to control the brand image.

Brand managers create strategies to convert a suspect to prospect, prospect to buyer, buyer to customer, and customer to brand advocates.

“By Appointment to His Royal Majesty” was a registered and limited list of approved brands suitable for supply to the Royal British family.

Some believe brand managers can be counter-productive, due to their short-term focus.

On the other end of the extreme, luxury and high-end premium brands may create advertisements or sponsor teams merely for the “overall feeling” or goodwill generated.

A typical “no-brand” advertisement might simply put up the price (and indeed, brand managers may patrol retail outlets for using their name in discount/clearance sales), whereas on the other end of the extreme a perfume brand might be created that does not show the actual use of the perfume or Breitling may sponsor an aerobatics team purely for the “image” created by such sponsorship. Space travel and brand management for this reason also enjoys a special relationship.

“Nation branding” is a modern term conflating foreign relations and the idea of a brand. An example is Cool Britannia of the 1990s.

Social media

Even though social media has changed the tactics of marketing brands, its primary goals remain the same; to attract and retain customers.

However, companies have now experienced a new challenge with the introduction of social media. This change is finding the right balance between empowering customers to spread the word about the brand through viral platforms, while still controlling the company’s own core strategic marketing goals.

Word-of-mouth marketing via social media, falls under the category of viral marketing, which broadly describes any strategy that encourages individuals to propagate a message, thus, creating the potential for exponential growth in the message’s exposure and influence.

Basic forms of this are seen when a customer makes a statement about a product or company or endorses a brand. This marketing technique allows users to spread the word on the brand which creates exposure for the company. Because of this, brands have become interested in exploring or using social media for commercial benefit.

Brand Heritage

Brands with heritage are not simply associated with antiquated organizations; rather, they actively extol values and position themselves in relation to their heritage.

Brands offer multiple benefits to organiZations at various market levels, reflecting the entire experiential process afforded to consumers. In the case of voluntary organiZations if they can unlock their brand heritage and it will improve volunteer engagement, to the extent that organiZations ‘with a long history, core values, positive track record, and use of symbols possess, whether consciously or not, an inherent advantage in an increasingly competitive landscape’.
product dev Tutu
In the context of tourism preconceived notions of brand heritage stimulate the increased experience of existential authenticity, increasing satisfaction with the visitor experience.[53]
See also


Daily content sharing on Facebook, Google+, LinkedIn & Instagram & two tweets per day

Accounts setup and profile optimisation included

$25 budget allocated for Facebook Ads per month

24/7 analytics dashboard where you can login anywhere

Call-to-action for curatetd content via to drive traffic

Reputation management-monitoring comments, messages, etc.

Spam monitoring for social profiles’ feeds

Unlimited email and chat support throughout the plan duration


Frequently Asked Questions
What’s included in your content posting?

Daily content sharing. 7 days a week, 365 days a year.
Content specifically crafted for your business VIA content specialist.
Engaging content including graphics, curated links, videos, GIFs and more.
Promoting your products and services through posts.
Custom branded graphics to increase brand awareness.
Perfect balance of curated, owned and promotional content.

Do you monitor social engagement also?
YES! Include social comments/messages/reviews monitoring where we monitor and reply to them within 24-48 hours.

This also includes spam monitoring where we monitor for any unwanted activity on your profiles and remove/report spam when necessary.

What analytics do you provide?
A 24/7 analytics dashboard at analytics where you can login anytime to check analytics for your social media accounts, Facebook and Twitter advertising, SERPs and other important aspects of our service and beyond.

What is Facebook advertising and what are its benefits?
Facebook advertising budget and management. Under which we’ll create and manage your Facebook ad campaigns for your Facebook page/website and will spend the included budget for the growth of engagement/likes and leads.

Facebook advertising has been proven to be a great tool for increasing reach and brand loyalty. It’s especially recommended if you have a small business.

Are there any hidden costs?
Be sure about this. There are NO hidden costs. You only pay what you see. We also do not have any contracts. Billing will be done monthly, and you can cancel your plan anytime.

Do I have to sign a contract?

Can I cancel my plan at any time?
Yes, you can cancel your plan at any time, but I need 30 days’ notice to stop the work and billing.

How relevant is the content that you post? Can I be sure your content will be relevant to my business?
Yes, you can be sure. All the content that we post will be specially crafted for your business by SINCE I am a content specialist to engage your audience.

How will you know about my accounts?
I ‘ll ask you a few quick questions about your business. Your answers will help me as a manager understand what you do, your industry, target audience, brand voice etc. With that information available, I as your account manager will research your website, previous social media posts, related links and about everything else that is required for content creation. I’ll also email you giving an idea about the content we’ll be posting to get your feedback.
After I order, when will you start working on my social media?

I’ll start working on your accounts within three working days. Please make sure that you give me the access to your social accounts after you order. I1509519455905_edited‘ll be unable to post anything until you provide the access.

If you choose the “create accounts for me” option, then we’ll create accounts for you and start working within three working days.

Can I also post on my social accounts?

Yes. They are yours, after all!

I’ll take care of your social media, but you can always engage if you would like to!

dont worry, you won’t be disappointed.
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Why you should trust Tutu Tsuma,
I do deep research for your social media marketing.

Before we get started, I do comprehensive research regarding your business, current digital presence and goals.
I create an easy to understand strategy.

Social media marketing is not taking a shot in the dark. A social media plan will help you understand what I’ll do and how.
I execute each task passionately hands on.

I’m passionate about social media; it is the only practice enterprise I deliver best. Hence, when I start working on your social media accounts, be sure that I’ll do my simple best.
I have a consistent personalized approach for every client.

Social media is a long term job and I understand its importance. I’ll not only do a one-time great job, but I’ll do it consistently.
I provide reliable and quick communication, transparency and accountable value addition.

I want my clients to own an experience with an impression. That’s why I provide reliable and fast communication so you’re worry free, always.
I analyze and scale.

I know I cannot be perfect, but I work for excellence. I’ll regularly evaluate the performance of our work and provide viable solutions.

Market Research The Extra Mile That Social Media Gurus Don’t Go

Getting into the room I am met with an astounding physique of a blessing,
“Hi, may I help you.? She sings a melody that almost gets me into a sweep taking trance, “”OH MY”MY”” My head fancies …Then , “Sure, My name is Tutu and I am here to offer your INFINITY brand a whole revolution through series of steps where you would convert your clients from the lowest of your offers to the most lucrative asset.” Going on I check the shelves of desks piled with books and I utilize the architectural books to demonstrate my value proposition.

“What a mind!”She might be thinking by now. Then ..’Ok my boss is in lemme inform him then get back to you.” “Hooray!” I get my fast pass cause there an then the appointment is set. I get to sit …Then walks in a lady and another guy. Then they wait as I await my … FINAL DESTINATION.

Finally am told to walk in into the CEO’s office and I pitch. They check something and they also show me somethings. “What can you do?” ‘You see its all over the place and it can be more orderly.’ Yes I imagine and YES sure can BE.

The next is history since I offered a free consultation with a kind hearted Islam brilliant lady, “wallach”, they nick name them. And she’s so gorgeous. With her comes another breakthrough , then comes the opportunity in the office set up. GREAT.

I consult and get to the heart of whose the original web host and domain holder and finally engage multiple web designers , three to be exact and one two developers. Before you know it I get the job its way not knowing someone is actually taking from me.

The EXTRA mile cause the contract hadn’t been signed and won’t and would never be, I decide to count my blessings and its like it’s been an educative experience and so truly it indeed was.

Normally guys want the job and want a deposit , neither have they offered a thorough consultation nor have they even paid the price.But they want the fast money and the bills paid and the nice time of a safety net. Well they..

“They- WE’ “You” Do not understand that the client is in for a “WOW” experience with them. They underestimate the clients feeling. The emotion.. and here is where I came to learn my unique (selling)value proposition(point)
Not money/CASH but an EXPERIENCE first of Who I AM and Where do YOU (Client) come from.

Then where can we meet if we are to begin our long life MATRIMONY -JOURNEY.My only ultimatum is going this EXTRA mile and giving value for free first then comes the clients’ power versus mine but they have to match.
And I make sure they match so if your business partner does not get to LISTEN to my FREE value , we shall not match even if you found SENSE in it…why? Because the value proposition did not mirror two or a board but actually the persona and the human , the mindset of YOU not TWO.

So the extra mile has to be treated by the two for the long lived EXPERIENCE of recurring and repeat business value from me down to your clients and to OUR UNIVERSE.

Wide legged jumpsuit..

Te creative mindset of this girl shall only pull you if you understand what it means by the money is in the list ..You can afford this and more ..invest with such by promoting first ..I have stolen an advice from the gods and sold it out for free parabolic


Hi there,

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